1. Data Sufficiency: Structure & Format by Ayman Sadiq [Skill development]
Critical Reasoning Hard 5
- Medical research has claimed a very high association between smoking and lung cancer, yet we see many smokers showing no signs of lung cancer. On the other hand, many victims of lung cancer had never smoked. We can conclude that _____________.
- Whenever Mehedi is outdoors and it’s raining, he uses his umbrella. Whenever he is outdoors and it’s not raining, he carries his umbrella in his backpack. Sometimes, the it’s raining when he is not outdoors. If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true IF Mehedi is not wearing his sunglasses?
- Noting that the number of crimes committed in a certain city had decreased in 1982 by 5.2 percent in comparison with 1981, the police chief of the city said, “We see here the result of the innovative police program put into effect in the city at the beginning of 1982.” Which of the following, if true, most weakens the conclusion drawn by the police chief?
- The total population of 10 countries in the Asian zone is greater than the total population of 11 countries in the European Zone. One country is dropped from the Asian zone. What can we infer from the information given above?
- I am afraid that India will not win the Cricket World Cup since it will be hosted by Australia this year. The argument above is based on which of the following assumptions? (i) A team must be a host nation in order to win the Cricket World Cup. (ii) No team other than Australia can win the Cricket World Cup this year. (iii) No team can win back to back Cricket World Cups.
- Car enthusiasts aged 40 to 50 are more likely to buy cars made by Porsche and are more likely to buy them in greater numbers than are members of any other demographic group. The popular belief that teenagers drive more Porsches than adults must, therefore, be false. The argument is flawed primarily because the author
- While many people think of genetic manipulation of food crops as being aimed at developing larger and larger plant varieties, some plant breeders have in fact concentrated on discovering or producing dwarf varieties, which are roughly half as tall as normal varieties. Which of the following would, if true, most help to explain the strategy of the plant breeders referred to above?
- A drug that is highly effective in treating many types of infection can, at present, be obtained only from the bark of the ibora, a tree that is quite rare in the wild. It takes the bark of 5,000 trees to make one kilogram of the drug. It follows, therefore, that continued production of the drug must inevitably lead to the ibora's extinction. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
- When a polygraph test is judged inconclusive, this is no reflection on the examinee. Rather, such a judgment means that the test has failed to show whether the examinee was truthful or untruthful. Nevertheless, employers will sometimes refuse to hire a job applicant because of an inconclusive polygraph test result. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
- In virtually any industry, technological improvements increase labor productivity. In Parland's industries, labor productivity is significantly higher than it is in Vergia's industries. Clearly, therefore, Parland's industries must, on the whole, be further advanced technologically than Vergia's are. The argument is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?